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Advances in Lithium-Ion Batteries

Lithium has the lightest weight, highest voltage, and greatest energy density of all metals. The first published interest in lithium batteries began with the work of Harris in 1958. The work eventually led to the development and commercialization of a variety of primary lithium cells during the 1970s.Portable power applications continue to drive research and development of advanced battery systems. Often, the extra energy content and considerations of portability have outweighed economics when a system is considered. This has been true of lithium battery technologies for the past thirty years and for lithium ion battery systems, which evolved from the early lithium battery development.Studies of fast ion conduction in solids demonstrated that alkali metal ions could move rapidly in an electronically conducting lattice containing transition metal atoms in a mixed valence state. When the host structure is fully populated with alkali metal atoms - lithium ions in the most common context the transition metal atom is in the reduced state.

Handbook Of Batteries third edition
This growth and the demand for batteries meeting increasingly stringent performance requirements have been a challenge to the battery industry. The theoretical and practical limits of battery technology can be a barrier to meeting some performance requirements. Batteries are also cited as the limiting factor for achieving the application’s desired service life. Nevertheless, substantial advances have been made both with improvement of the performance of the conventional battery systems and the development of new battery systems. These advances have been covered by significant revisions and updating of each of the appropriate chapters in this third edition of the Handbook. Recent emphasis on the performance of the primary alkaline manganese dioxide battery has been directed toward improving its high-rate performance to meet the requirements of the new digital cameras and other portable electronics. The new high-rate Ultra or Premium battery was first sold in 2000 and already commands about 25% of the market. The lithium primary battery continues its steady growth, dominating the camera market and applications requiring high power and performance over long periods of time. It now accounts for over $1 billion in annual sales.This third edition of the Handbook of Batteries has now grown to over 1400 pages, recognizing the broad scope of battery technology and the wide range of battery applications. This work would not have been possible without the interest and contributions of more than eighty battery scientists and engineers who participated in its preparation. Their cooperation is gratefully acknowledged, as well as the companies and agencies who supported these contributing authors.

Batteries in a Portable World
A Handbook on Rechargeable Batteries for Non-Engineers, Second Edition, This book addresses the most commonly used consumer and industrial batteries, which are NiCd, NiMH, Lead Acid, and Li-ion/polymer. It also includes the reusable alkaline for comparison. The absence of other rechargeable battery systems is done for reasons of clarity. Some weird and wonderful new battery inventions may only live in experimental labs. Others may be used for specialty applications, such as military and aerospace. Since this book addresses the non-engineer, it is the author’s wish to keep the matter as simple as possible.During the last few decades, rechargeable batteries have made only moderate improvements in terms of higher capacity and smaller size. Compared with the vast advancements in areas such as microelectronics, the lack of progress in battery technology is apparent. Consider a computer memory core of the sixties and compare it with a modern microchip of the same byte count. What once measured a cubic foot now sits in a tiny chip. A comparable size reduction would literally shrink a heavy-duty car battery to the size of a coin. Since batteries are still based on an electrochemical process, a car battery the size of a coin may not be possible using our current techniques.

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