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Multi conversions

Multi conversion anything that you want to convert from http://www.unitconversion.org/
with free download tools conversion version 5.1, all you have to do is click below or input.

1. distance and length conversion
2. weight and mass conversion
3. currency conversion
4. capacity and volume conversion
5. volume - dry conversion
6. temperature conversion
7. area conversion
8. pressure conversion
9. energy and work conversion
10. power conversion
11. force conversion
12. time conversion
13.velocity conversion,
14.angle conversion,
15.fuel consumption conversion,
16a.numbers conversion,
16b. data storage conversion,
17.velocity - angular conversion,
18.acceleration conversion,
19.acceleration - angular conversion,
20.density conversion,
21.specific volume conversion,
22.moment of inertia conversion,
23.moment of force conversion,
24.torque conversion,
25.fuel efficiency - mass conversion,
26.fuel efficiency - volume conversion,
27.temperature interval conversion,
28.thermal expansion conversion,
29.thermal resistance conversion,
30.thermal conductivity conversion,
31.specific heat capacity conversion,
32.heat density conversion,
33.heat flux density conversion,
34.heat transfer coefficient conversion,
35a.flow conversion,
35b.flow - mass conversion,
36.flow molar conversion,
37.mass flux density conversion,
38.concentration - molar conversion,
39.concentration - solution conversion,
40.viscosity - dynamic conversion,
41.viscosity - kinematic conversion,
42.surface tension conversion,
43.permeability conversion,
44.sound conversion,
45.luminance conversion,
46.luminous intensity conversion,
47.illumination conversion,
48.digital image resolution conversion,
49.frequency wavelength conversion,
50.charge conversion,
51.linear charge density conversion,
52.surface charge density conversion,
53.volume charge density conversion,
54.current conversion,
55.linear current density conversion,
56.surface current density conversion,
57.electric field strength conversion,
58.electric potential conversion,
59a.electric resistance conversion,
59b. electric resistivity conversion
60a.electric conductance conversion,
60b.electric conductivity conversion
61.electrostatic capacitance conversion,
62.inductance conversion,
63.magnetomotive force conversion,
64.magnetic field strength conversion,
65.magnetic flux conversion,
66.magnetic flux density conversion,
67a. radiation conversion
67b.radiation - activity conversion
68.radiation - exposure conversion
69.radiation - absorbed dose conversion
70.prefixes conversion
71.data transfer conversion
72.EU currency conversion
73.typography conversion
74.volume - lumber conversion



ampere [A]:
kiloampere [kA]:
milliampere [mA]:
biot [Bi]:
abampere [abA]:
EMU of current:
statampere [stA]:
ESU of current:
CGS e.m. unit:
CGS e.s. unit:
current conversion factors provided by unitconversion.org







volt [V]:
watt/ampere [W/A]:
abvolt [abV]:
EMU of electric potential:
statvolt [stV]:
ESU of electric potential:
electric potential conversion factors provided by unitconversion.org







ohm:
megohm:
microhm:
volt/ampere [V/A]:
reciprocal siemens [1/S]:
abohm:
EMU of resistance:
statohm:
ESU of resistance:
Quantized Hall resistance:
electric resistance conversion factors provided by unitconversion.org







watt [W]:
exawatt [EW]:
petawatt [PW]:
terawatt [TW]:
gigawatt [GW]:
megawatt [MW]:
kilowatt [kW]:
hectowatt [hW]:
dekawatt [daW]:
deciwatt [dW]:
centiwatt [cW]:
milliwatt [mW]:
microwatt [µW]:
nanowatt [nW]:
picowatt [pW]:
femtowatt [fW]:
attowatt [aW]:
horsepower [hp, hp (UK)]:
horsepower (550 ft*lbf/s):
horsepower (metric):
horsepower (boiler):
horsepower (electric):
horsepower (water):
pferdestarke (ps):
Btu (IT)/hour [Btu/h]:
Btu (IT)/minute [Btu/min]:
Btu (IT)/second [Btu/s]:
Btu (th)/hour [Btu (th)/h]:
Btu (th)/minute:
Btu (th)/second [Btu (th)/s]:
MBtu (IT)/hour [MBtu/h]:
MBH:
ton (refrigeration):
kilocalorie (IT)/hour [kcal/h]:
kilocalorie (IT)/minute:
kilocalorie (IT)/second:
kilocalorie (th)/hour:
kilocalorie (th)/minute:
kilocalorie (th)/second:
calorie (IT)/hour [cal/h]:
calorie (IT)/minute [cal/min]:
calorie (IT)/second [cal/s]:
calorie (th)/hour [cal (th)/h]:
calorie (th)/minute:
calorie (th)/second:
foot pound-force/hour:
foot pound-force/minute:
foot pound-force/second:
pound-foot/hour [lbf*ft/h]:
pound-foot/minute:
pound-foot/second [lbf*ft/s]:
erg/second [erg/s]:
kilovolt ampere [kV*A]:
volt ampere [V*A]:
newton meter/second:
joule/second [J/s]:
exajoule/second [EJ/s]:
petajoule/second [PJ/s]:
terajoule/second [TJ/s]:
gigajoule/second [GJ/s]:
megajoule/second [MJ/s]:
kilojoule/second [kJ/s]:
hectojoule/second [hJ/s]:
dekajoule/second [daJ/s]:
decijoule/second [dJ/s]:
centijoule/second [cJ/s]:
millijoule/second [mJ/s]:
microjoule/second [µJ/s]:
nanojoule/second [nJ/s]:
picojoule/second [pJ/s]:
femtojoule/second [fJ/s]:
attojoule/second [aJ/s]:
joule/hour [J/h]:
joule/minute [J/min]:
kilojoule/hour [kJ/h]:
kilojoule/minute [kJ/min]:
power conversion factors provided by unitconversion.org





A dictionary of unit measurement - complete information on a specific unit alphabetical order.

free pdf file for symbol and conversions factors

conversions - mass, length, volume/capacity, area, mass density,linear density, surface density, time, force, energy, heat and work, power.

Electrical Formulas

lIST Below links are all free electrical formulas.

electrical formulas etc. - metric conversion, electrical formulas, conduit weight, maximum no. of conduit, 600 volt building wire, weights and ampacities, ampacities of a insulated conductors, copper to aluminum, receptacle configuration.

electrical and mechanical formulas - ohms law, power - ac circuit, power - dc circuit, mechanical, blower motors, pump motors.

useful electrical formulas - to find ampers when horsepower is known, amperes when kilowatts are known, amperes when kilovolt amperes are known, kilowatts, kilo volts amperes, horsepower.

electrical formulas - admittance, ammeter shunt, batteries, capacitance, capacitance in parallel, capacitance and series, charge division by parallel capacitances, compensation theorem, complex power, current division by parallel resistances, delta-star transformation, dielectric dissipation factor, direct current machines, efficiency, energy, fault calculation, harmonic resonance, inductance, inductance in parallel, inductance in series, induction machines, impedance, instrument transformer, joule's law, kirchhof's laws, maximum power transfer theorem, millman's theorem, mutual inductance, norton's theorem, ohm's law, per-unit system, power, power factor, power factor correction, reactance, reactive loads, reactors, reciprocity theorem, resistance, resistance in parallel, resistance in series,
resonance, star-delta transformation, superposition theorem, symmetrical components, synchronous machines, temperature rise, thermal short time rating, thevenin's theorem , thievenins and norton equivalence, three phase fault level, three phase power, time constants, transformers, voltage division by series capacitances, voltage division by series resistances, voltmater multiplier, wheatstone bridge.

free download Formulas, Equations, and Help - unit converter, periodic table of elements, kvar calculator, voltage drop calculator, motor protection calculator, motor calculation, circuit design calculator, conduit fill calculator, 4 function calculator, zonal cavity calculator, arc flash calculator, fault current calculator, lighting system calculator, capacitor kvar calculator, software, residential load calculations, touch potentian 2 wire circuit, conversion formulas, electrical formulas based on 60 hz.

Electric Motor



Electric motor - A motor that converts electricity to mechanical work

electric motor - rotating electrical machines, principles of electric motors, its magnetic field, current, and forces, synchronous motor.

free pdf file for Induction machine with squirrel cage rotor and slip ring rotor - The experiment, experiment preparation, experiment realization.

electric drives - electrical machines fundamentals - principles,
motor action, generator action, alternative motor action, reluctance torque, basic electrical machine, magnetic circuit two pole motor, commutation, motor characteristics, generators.


electric motors - history and development, categorisation of electric motors, dc motors, universal motors, ac motors, torque motors, stepper motors, linear motors, doubly-fed electric motors, doubly-fed electric motor, singly-fed electric motor, nanotube nanomotor, motor calculation, motor standards.

simple electic motors - how it works, technical information, selecttion suggestion,
assembly instructions, experiments and application, troubleshooting, safety rules.


electric machine applications - notation, transformer, induction machines, synchronous machines, direct current machines, efficiency, temperature rise, dielectric dissipation factor.

free pdf file for electrical power and machines - power systems, phasor diagram, three phase power, magnetic circuits, electomechanical engergy, conversion, dc machine, transformers, induction motors, synchronous machine.

a tutorial on electrical motors - motor selection criterias, motor type,

motor formulas - calculating motor speed, calculating braking torque, calculating work, calculating torque, calculating full-load torque, calculating horse power, calculating synchronous speed.

basic motor formulas and calculations - rules of thumb approximation, mechanical formulas, temperature conversion, synchronous speed, frequency and number of poles of ac motors, relation between horsepower, torque and speed, motor slip, symbols, equivalent inertia, electrical formulas, locked rotor current from nameplate data, basic horsepower calculations, accelerating torque, duty cycle.

motor tutorials - ac motors, dc motors, brushless dc motors, servo motors, brushed dc servo motors, brushless ac servo motors, stepper motors, linear motors.


motor comparisons - brush vs. brushless, housed vs. frameless, stepper vs. brushless, induction vs. pm brushless.


free pdf file for motor control fundamentals - motor anatomy, what makes a motor spin?, types of motors, why do we need electronics in the motor?, system level block diagram.

The need for fault calculation in design



After my seminar last March 2007 it was a three days seminar on fault calculation
at Cebu Philippines. I become aware with my work when making Design and Estimate, it
is also an eye opener for all Electrical Engineer especially to the newly engineers,
this what happen.

Contrary to the practice of many local engineers, Fault Calculation must precede any effort to procure system protection devices. This activity is supposed to be one major part of the design process, but is oftentimes skipped or omitted.

Several provisions of the National Electrical Code, the Philippines Electrical Code
& IEEE publications ralate to proper system protection. Safe and reliable operation
of the industrial plant based on these provision mandate that electrical system must
be protected adequately & effectively.

While over-current protection devices are provided for overloaded protection for system components such as switchgears, busses, wires & cables, motor controllers, etc. it is also necessary to place protection for more damaging events such as faults. To obtain a reliable operation and to assure that system components are protected from damage during abnormal events, it is necessary to firts calculate the fault duties at various points in the electrical system while still on the drawing boards and adequate protective devices must subsequently be in place to anticipate these faults.

For all possile conditions, it is the responsibility of the system designer to design
electric power systems with adequate control of short circuits as one major consideration. It is also the plant engineer's responsibility to see to it that the protective devices are armed to predetermined settings either by himself or by consultants. As can be recalled, uncontrolled short circuits can cause service outages with accompanying production downtime and associated inconvenience, interruption of essential facilities, extensive equipment damage, personnel injury or fatality and a possible full-blown fire.

Again as the system designer is responsible for the selection of the right equipment, and would generally have the task of calculating system short circuits, procedures and techniques for these calculations are not generally available in on reference dissertation but are scattered among many publication and technical papers.


Fault calculations result to at least three very significant outputs which will
become the bases of the following:

1. First : proper selection of protective equipment ratings as circuit breakers or fuses that suit to system requirements :

2. Second : realistic arming up of protective relays to trigger operation of circuit breakers once faults do occur :

3. Thirdly : Proper coordination of operation of these protective devices to effect selective interruptions of the only required breakers to trip faulted circuits without the hassle of rendering the other portions of the system powerless.

Electrical Per-unit Calculation

The per-unit method of calculation in its basic concept is to develop a counterpart impedance or reactance network diagram of the power system involved and resolve these impedances down to a single impedance value through delta, wye, series, parallel conversion equations. While it is possible to do the calculation with the actual system ohmic values, it becomes very complex when several voltages levels are involve since ohmic values at different voltages are not directly compatible. With the aid of the per-unit mathematical technique, it has facilitated this difficulty. While the equivalent diagram and the per-unit mathematics are two separate fields, they usually are used together and referred to as the per-unit method of determining short circuit values.

For Medium voltage power system usually benefit the application of the per-unit
method because the analysis normally undertaken involves a relatively few specific points in an existing system. Also in these system, reactance usually far exceeds resistance high X/R ratio, permitting resistance to be ignored, which greatly simplifies the mathematics.


The primary advantages of the per-unit system are as follow:

1. The per-unit values for transformer impedance, voltage and current are identical when referred to the primary and secondary line ( no need to reflect impedances from one side of the transformer to the other, the transformer is a single impedance).

2. The per-unit values for various components lie within a narrow range ragardless of the equivalent rating.

3. The per-unit values clearly represent the relative values of the circuit quantities. Many of the ubiquitous scaling constants are eliminated.

4. Ideal for computer simulations.

power factor correction



visit free download pdf site  and free download ebooks
what is power factor? the power factor is the cosine of the angle between the voltage
and current in the circuit or the ratio of the resistance to the impedance of the circuit and also the ratio of the real to the apparent power. To give more detail regarding power factor please follow the links below for additional information on power factor.

free pdf file for power factor - power in single phase ac circuits, complex power, the complex balance power, power factor correction.

free pdf file for power factor fundamental - power factor correction saves money, what is power factor, the power triangle, why do we install capacitors?, other benefits, summary of benefits for installing capacitor.

free pdf file for three phase theory - balanced load, three phase power, analysis of three phase balanced systems, single circuit of a three phase system, equivalent circuit for three phase balanced system, unbalanced three phase system, sysmetrical components,
graphical methord of solution, power associated with sequence components.

Useful Formulas for Power System Analysis & Power Factor Correction - formula symbols,free calculation for capacitors connected in parallel, capacitors connected in series, capacitive reactance, capacitance, capacitor kilovars, power factors, kilovars required to change power factor, equations for total power factor, total power, reactive power, voltage rise, released system capacity for power factor improvement, loss reduction for correction power factor, capacitor current, total power factor, quality factor, crest factor. note : just click the capacitor and input the value then automatically give you the answer.

power factor - power in resistive and reactive ac circuits, true power, reactive power, apparent power, calculating power factor, practical power factor correction.

free pdf file for power factor - the difference between volt amperes and watts, definition of a volt ampere reactive, a graphical representation of real, reactive, apparent and power factor.


FACTS ON POWER FACTOR

1. The reason why we need to improve power factor is to avoid poor voltage regulation.
2. Another reason is to decrease the reactive power.
3. On magnetizing component of a transformer the power factor is always leading.
4. On incandescent bulb or lamp the power factor is unity.
5. using synchronous motor can improve the power factor.
6. Using static capacitors can also improve the power factor and they are almost loss free.
7. If the system has poor power factor it will result to overloading of transformer as well as alternator.
8. For indicative circuit they can improve the power factor by connecting in series of capacitor.
9. KVAR are rated terms of the capacitors of power factor correction.
10. oN AC circuit which contain both resistor and conductor the power factor is leading between 0-1.

TYPES OF POWER FACTORS
1. unity power factor - equal real and apparent power.
2. leading power factor - when the current leads voltage by an angle and the true power will less than the apparent power.
3. lagging power factor - when the current lags voltage by an angle and the true power is less than the apparent power.
4. zero power factor - when there is phase difference of 90 degree between the current and the voltage. If the circuit has zero power factor you have no useful work to be done.

Flying kite near power line



Inventor Benjamin Franklin He used kite to prove that lighting was a electricity. So therefore playing kite could prove also that be very a good conductor too especially when you are using a materials that does not right.

Overhead transmission lines are very much danger it is because most of the lines
carrying 7620 volt above they are bare conductors which means not insulated.

Substation or transformer installed on pole are live parts also that are dangerous to contact.

Current always seeks the shortest path to the ground,it tries to find a good conductor or something that they can pass through to the ground. Our body contains about 70 percent of water which means current can able to flow. For instance if you are touching a live parts while your feet in on the ground, the current will automatically to flow it causes harmful.

Becuase of that it is better or advisableto stay clear off the electrical wires when flying or playing kites, because it can cause a serious injuries or even death.
The question. How much current can a body take? The answer is it doesn't take much to get hurt even 10 watts of Christmas tree bulb can kill you in a fraction of second if it passes throug your heart.

For safety tips
1. If your kite is caught in power lines or it falls into a substation you must leave there or call an emergency line man of the company.
2. use cotton, linen or any nylon to use as string of your kite.
3. use kites made of good insulator like wood or plastic.
4. before you playing kite always clear and be observant and knowledgeable about electricity.

All about transmission and distribution lines


Information on High Voltage Overhead Transmission and Distribution lines - what is in a tower?, about phases,circuits and shielding, how high is high?, about different ways to express voltage, electrical fields and induced voltage, telecommunication on high voltage overhead lines.

free transmission lines calculator

Transmission Lines - A 50 ohm cable?, circuit and the speed of light,Characteristic impedance, Finite length transmission lines, Long and short transmission lines, Standing waves and resonance, Impedance transformation, waveguides

How Power Grids Work

3 Phase Power Distribution and Transmission

The main function of substation

Substations serve as sources of energy supply for the local areas of distribution in which they are located. Their main functions are the following:

1. To receive energy transmitted at high voltage (in Philippines, it is usually 230 kV or 138 kV transmission voltage and 69 kV sub-transmission voltage) from the generating stations;

2. To Reduce the voltage to a value appropriate for local use and provide facilities for switching; and

3. To Provide points where safety devices may be installed to disconnect circuits or equipment in the event of trouble.

Voltage on the outgoing distribution feeders. can be regulated at a substation. It is also a convenient place to make measurements to check the operation of various parts of the system.

What is Automatic Voltage Regulator in transmission and distribution lines

The AVR units maintain
voltages within the allowable
levels. They operate in
similar principle as the
smaller AVR units we use in
our homes. Whenever there
are variations in voltage
feeding by the substations, the
AVR units shall
automatically regulate the
output voltage so that the
customers receive a steady
voltage from their end.

what is alternating current(AC) system


the sinusoidal waveform - dc current vs. ac current, the sinusoidal ac waveform, Instantaneous Current and Voltage,

amplitude of a sinusoidal waveform - Peak and Peak-to-Peak Voltage, RMS Voltage, Average Voltage

frequency and period of a sinusoidal waveform - Period of a Waveform, Frequency of a Waveform , with question and answer

phase angle - Phase Angle , Leading and Lagging Phase Angles

sinusoidal power waveform - AC Power Waveform , Average AC Power

non-sinusoidal waveform - Rectangular Waveform, Amplitude and Period , Period and Duty Cycle , Sawtooth Waveform

basic ac theory - what is alternating current?, what is AC waveforms, measurement of ac magnitude, simple ac circuit calculation
ac phase, principles of radio, contributors.

AC METERING CIRCUITS - ac voltmeters and ammeters, frequency and phase measurement, power quality measurement, ac bridge circuits,
ac instrumentation transducers.

Resistors and Ohm's law in AC circuits

Bandwidth and Q factor

RMS and power in single and three phase AC circuits

electromagnetic induction

The process by which an electromotive force and hence current is generated
or induced in a conductor when there is a change in the magnetic flux, linking
The conductor,is called electromagnetic induction.

Faraday's experiments - Len's law,Some definitions like magnetic flux,
Electromotance or electromotive force e.m.f., motional electromotance
motional electromotance in terms of flux cutting, induced currents and
charges, The differential form of Faraday's law, Self-inductance, Calculation of
sefl-inductance, Magnetic energy(in terms of self-inductance, in terms of the magnetic field)


electromagnetic induction - with moving picture for you to quick understand about electromagnetic Induction and with question and answer, Facts, Len's law and equations of the formula

electromagnetic induction - magnetism, magnetics fields, force & magnetic induction, electromagnetic induction, Back EMF, Transformers.

application of electromagnetic induction - eddy currents, an electric generator, back EMF in electrical generator mutual inductance, self inductance, transformers.

electromagnetic induction - motional emf, example problem, the induced electric field, inductance with problem, magnetic energy with problem, the RL circuit with problem.

electromagnetic induction - with free animation shows a copper rod being moved.

electromagnetic induction - current changes direction with change and magnetic motion,
voltage change polarity with change in magnetic motion, magnetic moved back and forth and its formulas.


KEY FACTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

- Good smoothing factor of a coil depends on the induction of the coil.
- Wherever a conductor cuts magnetics flux. an e.m.f. is induced in that conductor. This statement is due to Faraday's law
- Magnetic field intensity is a vector quantity.
- Leakage factor is more than unity.
- It is difficult to magnetize steel because of its low permeability
- A degaussing is the process of the demagnetizing metallic part.

90 percent of Mindanao grid experienced black out

October 28, 2007 Davao Light experienced a total black out of the whole franchise only the downtown area and hospital are automatically on because we have a back up power generator. The main cause is from TRANSCO the reason state below as our supervisor receive a text.


Transco Iligan MRCC. Please be informed that the system experienced major system trouble at 1:04 pm today. The following 138 kv lines trip affecting 90% of mindanao grid: agus 2- kibawe line 1 and 2, abaga-agus 2 line 1 and 2, abaga agus 6 line 1 and 2, abaga-tagloan, abaga-aurora, abaga-lugait, lugait-tagaloan. Initial finding, abaga-agus 6 line 1 conductor flashover/melted at agus 6 switchyard.

all about magnetic

magnetics through hand - you need to know how the magnetic force can penetrate through our hands

electricity and magnetism - wants to learn more about magnetics fields, magnetics properties, and more..

magnetism experiments - looking for a magnetism experiments its free..

free pdf file about magnetics field and magnetics lines of force

how to make a simple compass without need an expensive materials.

how Loudspeaker and Microphone works by the power of magnetics

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