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Tutorials on Electrical Power Factor Correction

All About Power Factor Links

Power Factor Meter
A direct reading instrument for measuring power factor. It is provided with a scale graduated in power factor.

Power Factor Relay
Power system device function numbers. A relay that operates when the power factor in an alternating current circuit rises above or falls below a predetermined value.

Power Feeder
A feeder supplying principally a power or heating load.

Power Frequency
The value of frequency used in the Electrical power system, such as 50 hz or 60 Hz.

Power Inverter
A converter unit in which the direction of average power flow in from the DC circuit to the alternating circuit.

Power Monitor
A functional module that monitors the status of the primary power source to the system, and signals when that power has strayed outside the limits required for reliable system operation. Since most systems are powered by an alternating current source, the power monitor is typically designed to detect dropout or
brown out conditions on alternating current lines.

Power Factor Question and Answer

1. If a current of 10 amperes at a power factor of 0.8 lagging is taken from 250 Volt alternating current supply, the reactive power of the system will work out to be 1500 VAR.
2. Many industrial tariffs penalise consumers whose power factor falls below 0.8.
3. Power factor improvement may be achieved the use of synchronous motor.
4. One of the reasons for improving the power factor is to decrease the reactive power.
5. The power factor of incadescent bulb is unit.
6. The power facotor of an inductive circuit can be improved by connecting a capacitor to it in series.
7. The capacitor of power factor correction are rated in terms of KVAR.
8. In an alternating current circuit, a low value of with reactive volt ampere compared with watts indicates high power factor.
9. It is not easy to find the value of impedance for a parallel circuit but power factor can easily be obtained as a ratio of active current to line current.
10. In a series circuit consisting of resistance and reactance, power factor is a defined as the ratio of resistance to impedance.
11. In pure reactive circuit, the power factor is zero.
12. Power factor is defined as the ratio of watts to volt ampere.
13. For a parallel circuit consisting of resistance and reactance the value of power factor is the ratio of impedance to resistance.
14. The power factor of an alternating current circuit containing both a resistor and a conductor is between 0 - 1 leading.
15. In a given circuit when power factor is unity the reactive power is zero.
16. A poor power factor results in overloading of transformer as well as alternators.
17. For the same load, if the power factor of load is reduced, it will draw more current.
18. The power factor of the magnetizing component of a transformer is always leading.
19. Another reason for improving the power factor is to avoid poor voltage regulation.
20. The advantage of using static capacitors to improve the power factor is that they are almost loss free.

Causes of Low Power Factor
1. Arc lamps and industrial heating furnaces are typical of low power factor operating equipments.
2. During the night time when load is less the supply voltage increase which in turn, causes the magnetising current of transformers and motors to increase. Therefore, the power factor at which the system operates becomes low.
3. Mostly alternating current motors are of induction type. These operate on low lagging power factor.

The Adverse of Low Power Factor
1. With low p.f. cost of generation and transmission increases due to increase in current and use of thicker wires and bigger switches.
2. Low pf. makes the voltage regulation of generators, transformer and transmission line greater.
3. For a given p.f. to be supplied, the current is increased due to low p.f. in causes increase in copper losses, and decreases the efficiency of both apparatus and supply system.
4. With low pf generators, transformer, swithes transmission lines become over loaded.

1 comment:

BalAyisi said...

Nice effort.Not just this post,others are very informative too.

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