This is All About Transformer its principles, Definition, Testing Facts and Tutorials
It is a static device for transforming electrical energy from one alternating current circuit to another without any change in frequency. It changes voltage from high to low and low to high with a corresponding increase or in decrease current. If the voltage is increased it is said to be stepped up. If it is decreased, then it is said as stepped down.
Electrical Transformer Principle
When one coil like primary is connected to the alternating current supply current flows and an alternating flux is set up in the core. Most of this flux links with the second coil secondary. Law of electromagnetic induction.If the circuit is completed, current will flow. The secondary voltage depends upon the ratio of secondary turns to primary turns.
The Testing of the Transformer
Two test are performed on the transformer which are open circuit test and short circuit test. These tests are performed to determine the parameter or constants of transformer, efficiency and regulation.
1. Open Circuit Test
This is also called no load test. It determined the iron losses and the no load current. One winding of the transformer, usually the low voltage side is connected to its normal supply with an ammeter to measure the voltage applied to the winding and a wattmeter to measure taken by transformer at no load. the high voltage winding is kept open. Under these conditions normal flux will be set up in the core, therefore, normal iron losses will occur. The current taken will be wattmeter will indicate the iron losses.
2. Short Circuit Test
This test is used to determine the full load copper losses and the equivalent resitances and reactances referred to the metering side. In this test on the high voltage winding a reduced value of the voltage is increased until full load current is flowing in this winding. The applied voltage is a small fraction of the normal working voltage, the mutual flux produced is very small and hence the core losses at this voltage can be neglected. The wattmeter during this test gives the total coppery losses.
What is Distribution Transformer?
Transformer up to a size of 200 KVA, used to step down the distribution voltage to a standard service voltage, are known as distribution transformers. They are kept in operation all the 24 hours a day whether they are carrying load or not. Energy is lost in iron losses throughout the day while the copper losses account for loss in energy when the transformer is loaded. Therefore, the distribution transformer should have their iron losses small as compared to full load copper losses, in other words, they should be designed to have maximum efficiency at a load much lower than full load about 50 percent. Owing to low iron loss, the distribution transformer have good all day efficiency. These transformer have a good voltage regulation.
What is Power Transformer?
These transformers have rating about 20 KVA and are in generating stations and substations at each of a power transmission line for stepping up or stepping down the voltage. They may be either single or three phase units. They are put in operation during load periods and are disconnected during light load periods. Therefore the power transformer should be designed to have maximum efficiency at or near full load. Power transformer are designed to have considerable greater leakage reactance than that permissible in distribution transformers because in the case of power transformer, voltage regulation is less important than current limiting effect of higher leakage reactance.
Important Facts About Transformer
1. In and ideal transformer on no load, the primary applied voltage is balanced by the secondary.
2. The concentric windings are used in core type transformer with LT winding placed next to core.
3. Cross over windings are used for high voltage winding of small rating transformers.
4. The magnitude of mutual flux in a transformer is same at all levels.
5. The induced emf in the transformer secondary will depend upon frequency, flux and number of turns in the secondary.